|By Willms Buhse||
|October 6, 2004 12:00 AM EDT||
Managing content in the next few years is only going to get more complicated. Luckily standards are on the way.
The sharing of media and entertainment via mobile devices is becoming an increasingly popular pastime and one of the most widely used mobile services. People download content to their mobile phones or receive information by MMS every day, thereby allowing content to be passed along from one to the other, finding the natural path toward the perfect target audience.
Typically, the media consumed on a mobile device today includes light media content types, with a lower value of around $1.00-$2.00 per item, such as screensavers, wallpapers, or ringtones. Content providers and mobile carriers are facing piracy issues similar to those caused by peer-to-peer networks on the Internet, and they are losing revenues since much of today's lower-value content is forwarded from one user to the next for free. As new smart phones and other devices with color displays and richer audio capabilities penetrate the market, and as network capacities increase thanks to a growing number of WLAN hotspots, consumers are demanding access to higher-value content. Recognizing the revenue potential of these services, mobile carriers and content providers aim to fulfill these consumer demands, while at the same time looking to protect their investments in high-value content.
They are looking for a copy protection solution that is specifically designed for the mobile environment (i.e., mobile digital rights management [DRM]). Addressing the most critical dilemmas in the life cycle of premium content - intellectual property, integrity protection, security, and privacy - successful DRM solutions enable the operation of high-quality mobile services with secured revenues, while also allowing super distribution - the easy, secure forwarding of content from one person to another.
DRM solutions need to work across different devices, geographies, operators, and mobile terminals. They need to escort protected files wherever they go and enforce administrator-defined policies, including who can read what, what content can be duplicated or e-mailed, and how long a user can view a file. Without a secure and interoperable DRM solution, the full potential of mobile media and entertainment delivery cannot be realized.
Defining Open Standards for Interoperable Mobile Services
This is where the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA), or, more specifically, the OMA DRM open standards for the mobile industry, comes in. Created in June 2002, its membership now includes over 400 mobile operators, content, service and applications providers, wireless vendors, and IT companies. OMA aims to stimulate the fast and wide adoption of a variety of new, enhanced mobile information, communication, and entertainment services. Its goal is to deliver high-quality, open technical specifications based upon market requirements that drive modularity, extensibility, and consistency among enablers to reduce industry implementation effort.
OMA identified the market need for various levels of protection depending on the value of the content being protected. The different levels impact the user interfaces and business models. Service providers and mobile vendors wanted a solution that is timely and inexpensive to deploy, can be implemented in mass-market mobile devices, and does not require a costly infrastructure.
In late 2002, OMA released the OMA DRM version 1.0 enabler, its first set of specifications. Based on a subset of the Open Digital Rights Language (ODRL) Rights Expression Language, and entirely royalty-free, the OMA DRM v.1.0 has been adopted by all the major parties in the content value chain. This includes handset vendors such as Motorola, Nokia, and Siemens, and various European and Asian software providers, such as CoreMedia. (CoreMedia is one of the only leading software houses to offer a mobile DRM solution based on the Open Mobile Alliance's (OMA's) DRM specifications.) While handset manufacturers are implementing DRM on their mobile phones, operators are integrating the DRM server components into their content delivery infrastructure.
OMA DRM v.1.0 - Basic Content Protection on Three Levels
Designed to protect light media content such as ringtones, wallpaper, Java games, video and audio clips, and screensavers, OMA's first DRM enabler provides an appropriate level of security for these content types. It includes three levels of protection and functionality: Forward Lock, Combined Delivery, and Separate Delivery, each level adding a layer of protection on top of the previous level.
The first level, Forward Lock, prevents the unauthorized transfer of content from one device to another. The intention is to prevent peer-to-peer distribution, or super-distribution, of lower value content. Often applied to subscription-based services, such as news or sports, the plaintext content is packaged inside a DRM message that is delivered to the terminal. The device can play, display, or execute the content, but not forward the object.
Adding a rights definition to the first level, Combined Delivery equally prevents super-distribution (or forwarding), but also controls the content usage. The DRM message contains two objects: the content and a rights object. The rights object, written into the content using OMA Rights Expression Language (REL), a mobile profile of ODRL, defines usage rules that govern the content. The rules include and support all kinds of business models, including preview and time- and usage-based constraints; for example, a complimentary preview - the permission to play a tune only once, using the content only for a specific number of days, or an annual subscription with non-interfering price models. When applying the Combined Delivery mechanism, neither content nor the rights object can be forwarded from the target device.
The third level, called Separate Delivery, is the most sophisticated mechanism because here the content is encrypted, thereby providing better protection for higher value content. Encrypted into DRM Content Format (DCF) using symmetric encryption, the content is useless without a rights object and the symmetric Content Encryption Key (CEK), which is delivered separately from the content. OMA requires that the CEK is delivered securely via WAP push directly to the authorized mobile device, where the DRM User Agent uses it for content decryption.
An OMA DRM-compliant device such as the Nokia 3200 or 6230, or the Siemens SX1 and C62, securely stores the rights objects outside of the consumer's reach. Only the media player on that device has access to both encrypted content and the rights object including the CEK, in order to enable the consumption of the content by displaying or playing it.
People can download media and entertainment content and forward it to friends via MMS, but the recipients will not be able to use the content until they obtain their own CEK for content decryption. A "rights refresh" mechanism enables recipients of super-distributed content to contact the content provider to obtain rights to either preview or purchase the content they have received.
This so-called super-distribution is the key benefit of Separate Delivery. OMA aims to promote super-distribution of content because it maximizes the number of potential customers through peer-to-peer recommendations while retaining control for the content provider through centralized rights acquisition - thereby potentially triggering enormous revenue growth.
Added Protection and Functionality
OMA has taken a different approach to DRM when compared to other standards groups. The alliance aims to enable content delivery in an evolutionary process by implementing basic protection as soon as possible and then taking on more complex issues, thereby avoiding spending years addressing every threat before implementing a definite standard. Hence, the OMA DRM v.1.0 enabler release was developed rapidly in order to reduce time to market and to be immediately available for member companies to implement into their mobile products without requiring massive new infrastructure or changes to handsets.
The DRM v.1.0 enabler is a suitable protection system for lower-value content, appropriate for lower-bandwidth networks and simpler devices. However, as higher bandwidth provided by 2.5G and 3G mobile networks allows for larger content files to be transmitted over the air, and as smart phones and other mobile devices with removable media and larger color screens support downloading and streaming of valuable rich media content, the level of security that OMA DRM v.1.0 provides is no longer satisfying to content providers and mobile carriers who are eager to release high-value rich media content and applications into the mobile marketplace but worry about a "napsterization" of the mobile space.
OMA's Browser and Content (BAC)
The Download and DRM Sub-Working Group began working on its upgraded DRM v.2.0 enabler in early 2003 and announced it to the public in February of this year. The new specifications take advantage of expanded device capabilities and offer improved support for audio/video rendering, streaming content, and access to protected content using multiple devices, thus enabling new business models. They have added security and trust certificates that allow more complex and rich forms of media content (i.e., premium content such as music tracks, video clips, and animated color screensavers and games) as well as improved support to preview and share content.
Security is enhanced by encrypting the rights object and the content encryption key, using the device's public key to bind them to the target device. Integrity protection for both content and the rights object reduces the risk of either being tampered with.
In addition to these enhanced security features, the specifications include additional trust elements. Mutual authentication between the device and the rights issuer (the content provider) will add trust to the downloading or messaging scenario. The rights issuer can accurately identify the device in order to determine the revocation status of the transaction. The new enabler also supports a wide variety of distribution and payment use cases.
Since February, several draft specifications have been announced as part of the OMA DRM 2.0 enabler release. The enhanced version includes countless benefits for content owners as well as end consumers. Content owners will profit from the following features:
- Enhanced security, enabled by the binding of rights objects to user identity: Individually encrypted rights objects use a device's public key to provide cryptographic binding (to SIM/WIM), integrity protection for content and rights objects.
- Explicit trust mechanisms, including mutual authentication between a device and the rights issuer as well as device revocation: The rights issuer can identify the device revocation status.
- Support of secure multicast and unicast streaming: Collaboration with 3GPP and 3GPP2 on a file format for protected streaming and progressive download.
- Export to other copy protection schemes: For example, the transfer of music to the SD Card (which incorporates its own DRM mechanism) for a mobile music player.
- Support for a wide variety of business models: These include metered time and usage constraints, subscription rights for content bundles, and gifting.
- Support for messaging and peer-to-peer (i.e., super-distribution): Viral marketing and a reward mechanism.
- Enhanced security: Premium mobile content will be available to users.
- Advanced content management: Content and rights can, for example, be easily moved between several devices owned by one user or moved to remote or removable storage and later be restored to the device.
- Sharing of content between multiple users: Within domain (community or family).
- Unconnected devices: Content can be copied to SD Card for a mobile music player without network connectivity.
- Complimentary previews: Constraints for super-distributed content before purchase.
- Export to other copy protection schemes: Transfer of music to a DRM-enabled set-top box or computing device is supported.
Implementing OMA DRM
The success of premium 3G applications and high-value media and entertainment content delivery lies in security, ease of use, and in the market penetration of suitable handsets. Handsets and other mobile devices that support OMA-defined DRM technology are already on the market. Currently about 80 models are available in all categories. Given that the specifications were released 14 months ago, this can be considered a tremendous success. As OMA DRM has penetrated into the OS and into, for example, Nokia's widely used Series 60, it has become easy for handset manufacturers to implement DRM. Some leading handset vendors have decided to release DRM in all of their phone models. For these devices, the enhanced DRM v.2.0 specifications represent the next step in pervasive mobile access. The new enabler, the specifics of which have just been released, takes advantage of expanded device capabilities - multimedia applications, processing speed, and storage, among others - and offers improved support for the downloading and streaming of content as well as for sophisticated business models.
OMA's DRM solution sets the stage for generating multimedia revenues in a mobile environment. The solution is widely accepted in the content industry and has been embraced by music labels, game providers, and movie studios. But, as Avi Greengart, senior analyst for wireless and personal technology at JupiterResearch states, "It's still early in the wireless content market. Content providers have been encouraged because consumers have shown a willingness to pay $2 for ringtone versions of songs they won't pay $1 to download on their PCs. As such, the lack of open-standards-based DRM hasn't inhibited content providers from releasing ringtones and graphics so far. However, it's pretty clear that as new services evolve for faster wireless networks and more capable handsets, content providers are looking for stronger rights protection and are hopeful that super-distribution will enable new business models."
SYS-CON Events announced today that SD Times | BZ Media has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 6–8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. BZ Media LLC is a high-tech media company that produces technical conferences and expositions, and publishes a magazine, newsletters and websites in the software development, SharePoint, mobile development and commercial UAV markets.
Mar. 25, 2017 09:15 AM EDT Reads: 4,076
SYS-CON Events announced today that Telecom Reseller has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 6–8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Telecom Reseller reports on Unified Communications, UCaaS, BPaaS for enterprise and SMBs. They report extensively on both customer premises based solutions such as IP-PBX as well as cloud based and hosted platforms.
Mar. 25, 2017 08:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,914
"I think that everyone recognizes that for IoT to really realize its full potential and value that it is about creating ecosystems and marketplaces and that no single vendor is able to support what is required," explained Esmeralda Swartz, VP, Marketing Enterprise and Cloud at Ericsson, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
Mar. 25, 2017 08:00 AM EDT Reads: 3,981
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cloudistics, an on-premises cloud computing company, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Cloudistics delivers a complete public cloud experience with composable on-premises infrastructures to medium and large enterprises. Its software-defined technology natively converges network, storage, compute, virtualization, and management into a ...
Mar. 25, 2017 08:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,714
In his keynote at @ThingsExpo, Chris Matthieu, Director of IoT Engineering at Citrix and co-founder and CTO of Octoblu, focused on building an IoT platform and company. He provided a behind-the-scenes look at Octoblu’s platform, business, and pivots along the way (including the Citrix acquisition of Octoblu).
Mar. 25, 2017 08:00 AM EDT Reads: 13,901
SYS-CON Events announced today that Loom Systems will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Founded in 2015, Loom Systems delivers an advanced AI solution to predict and prevent problems in the digital business. Loom stands alone in the industry as an AI analysis platform requiring no prior math knowledge from operators, leveraging the existing staff to succeed in the digital era. With offices in S...
Mar. 25, 2017 06:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,032
SYS-CON Events announced today that Interoute, owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017 at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Interoute is the owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform which encompasses 12 data centers, 14 virtual data centers and 31 colocation centers, with connections to 195 add...
Mar. 25, 2017 06:45 AM EDT Reads: 740
SYS-CON Events announced today that HTBase will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. HTBase (Gartner 2016 Cool Vendor) delivers a Composable IT infrastructure solution architected for agility and increased efficiency. It turns compute, storage, and fabric into fluid pools of resources that are easily composed and re-composed to meet each application’s needs. With HTBase, companies can quickly prov...
Mar. 25, 2017 06:45 AM EDT Reads: 2,705
SYS-CON Events announced today that CA Technologies has been named “Platinum Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and the 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. CA Technologies helps customers succeed in a future where every business – from apparel to energy – is being rewritten by software. From ...
Mar. 25, 2017 06:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,512
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftLayer, an IBM Company, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. SoftLayer, an IBM Company, provides cloud infrastructure as a service from a growing number of data centers and network points of presence around the world. SoftLayer’s customers range from Web startups to global enterprises.
Mar. 25, 2017 05:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,378
Web Real-Time Communication APIs have quickly revolutionized what browsers are capable of. In addition to video and audio streams, we can now bi-directionally send arbitrary data over WebRTC's PeerConnection Data Channels. With the advent of Progressive Web Apps and new hardware APIs such as WebBluetooh and WebUSB, we can finally enable users to stitch together the Internet of Things directly from their browsers while communicating privately and securely in a decentralized way.
Mar. 25, 2017 03:00 AM EDT Reads: 5,686
Keeping pace with advancements in software delivery processes and tooling is taxing even for the most proficient organizations. Point tools, platforms, open source and the increasing adoption of private and public cloud services requires strong engineering rigor - all in the face of developer demands to use the tools of choice. As Agile has settled in as a mainstream practice, now DevOps has emerged as the next wave to improve software delivery speed and output. To make DevOps work, organization...
Mar. 25, 2017 01:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,483
DevOps is often described as a combination of technology and culture. Without both, DevOps isn't complete. However, applying the culture to outdated technology is a recipe for disaster; as response times grow and connections between teams are delayed by technology, the culture will die. A Nutanix Enterprise Cloud has many benefits that provide the needed base for a true DevOps paradigm.
Mar. 25, 2017 12:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,653
What sort of WebRTC based applications can we expect to see over the next year and beyond? One way to predict development trends is to see what sorts of applications startups are building. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Arin Sime, founder of WebRTC.ventures, will discuss the current and likely future trends in WebRTC application development based on real requests for custom applications from real customers, as well as other public sources of information,
Mar. 25, 2017 12:00 AM EDT Reads: 554
TechTarget storage websites are the best online information resource for news, tips and expert advice for the storage, backup and disaster recovery markets. By creating abundant, high-quality editorial content across more than 140 highly targeted technology-specific websites, TechTarget attracts and nurtures communities of technology buyers researching their companies' information technology needs. By understanding these buyers' content consumption behaviors, TechTarget creates the purchase inte...
Mar. 24, 2017 10:15 PM EDT Reads: 4,187
With the introduction of IoT and Smart Living in every aspect of our lives, one question has become relevant: What are the security implications? To answer this, first we have to look and explore the security models of the technologies that IoT is founded upon. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Nevi Kaja, a Research Engineer at Ford Motor Company, will discuss some of the security challenges of the IoT infrastructure and relate how these aspects impact Smart Living. The material will be delivered i...
Mar. 24, 2017 10:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,933
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Eric Lachapelle, CEO of the Professional Evaluation and Certification Board (PECB), will provide an overview of various initiatives to certifiy the security of connected devices and future trends in ensuring public trust of IoT. Eric Lachapelle is the Chief Executive Officer of the Professional Evaluation and Certification Board (PECB), an international certification body. His role is to help companies and individuals to achieve professional, accredited and worldw...
Mar. 24, 2017 08:15 PM EDT Reads: 390
Your homes and cars can be automated and self-serviced. Why can't your storage? From simply asking questions to analyze and troubleshoot your infrastructure, to provisioning storage with snapshots, recovery and replication, your wildest sci-fi dream has come true. In his session at @DevOpsSummit at 20th Cloud Expo, Dan Florea, Director of Product Management at Tintri, will provide a ChatOps demo where you can talk to your storage and manage it from anywhere, through Slack and similar services ...
Mar. 24, 2017 06:30 PM EDT Reads: 4,167
My team embarked on building a data lake for our sales and marketing data to better understand customer journeys. This required building a hybrid data pipeline to connect our cloud CRM with the new Hadoop Data Lake. One challenge is that IT was not in a position to provide support until we proved value and marketing did not have the experience, so we embarked on the journey ourselves within the product marketing team for our line of business within Progress. In his session at @BigDataExpo, Sum...
Mar. 24, 2017 06:30 PM EDT Reads: 2,695
SYS-CON Events announced today that Ocean9will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Ocean9 provides cloud services for Backup, Disaster Recovery (DRaaS) and instant Innovation, and redefines enterprise infrastructure with its cloud native subscription offerings for mission critical SAP workloads.
Mar. 24, 2017 04:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,835