|By PR Newswire||
|February 13, 2013 02:34 PM EST||
NEW YORK, Feb. 13, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:
http://www.reportlinker.com/p01095482/DSL-Chips-Market-Shares-Strategies... to Susan Eustis, lead author of the study, "Deutsche Telekom, British Telecom, AT&T, Bell Canada, Century/Qwest and many other carriers have made clear they will use DSL, not fiber, for the majority of lines because it's cheaper. Increasingly, that's DSL from a neighborhood DSLAM (FTTN) with short loops that will soon be capable of 100 megabits through bonding and vectoring. There is plenty of copper wire in the telecommunications networks that can be used to provide broadband connectivity from fiber in the neighborhood, DSLAM connectivity to copper wires running into the home."
The rapid advance of end to end optical broadband networks continues to threaten to make xDSL obsolete, but copper will never go away, fiber is too expensive to use it to replace all the copper and the copper works in many cases and does not need to be replaced. xDSL markets will be strong for some long time to come as copper remains a transport line.
Copper is everywhere in the telecommunications network. It is still the primary wireless backbone transport means, meaning it continues to be vital as new wireless systems continue to expand their markets. It predominates in the local loop, creating demand for systems that are able to support high speed signal transport over copper wire.
Both smart phones and tablet devices depend on wire line backhaul, much of which is copper. As copper goes away, xDSL goes away, but this is certainly not happening within the forecast period.
The development and growth of the broadband digital subscriber line (DSL) and communications processing markets is assured as carriers seek to leverage their investment in copper wire infrastructure. DSL is the way to do that with its support for high speed communications and video signal transport.
Vendors consider companies that have access to broadband or communications processing technology as potential competitors. Established competitors, suppliers of products based on new or emerging technologies, and customers who choose to develop their own technology.
Deutsche Telekom, British Telecom, AT&T, Bell Canada, Century/Qwest and many other carriers have made clear they will use DSL, not fiber, for the majority of lines because it's cheaper. Increasingly, that's DSL from a neighborhood DSLAM (FTTN) with short loops that will soon be capable of 100 megabits through bonding and vectoring.
Even the DSL customers have a hybrid fiber / copper connection; it is just the last mile that is copper, hence requiring DSL.
The communications consumer end points worldwide are moving to 100% wireless smart phones that can connect to the Internet. The communications infrastructure worldwide will remain wire based to connect the central office to the base stations, and to provide Internet / IP based connectivity to the home. The wire based communications infrastructure worldwide is all moving to fiber so as to handle the increased demand for bandwidth.
The copper is not efficient for the cable companies because of the demand for bandwidth to the home that the cable companies are providing. The copper is not efficient in the wireless backbone connectivity of the central office to the wireless base stations, and hence there is a priority on replacing the copper that is there first. The copper from the curb or from the neighborhood to toe home is efficient; therefore the need for DSL persists.
Worldwide tablet market revenues at $799 million in 2011 are anticipated to reach $1.7 billion by 2018. DSL chip markets are forecast to grow year-over-year throughout the forecast period. This is in the context of a world communications infrastructure that is changing and seeking to leverage the existing plant to hold down costs. Technology is enabling interaction, innovation, and sharing of knowledge in new ways. DSL chips promise to bring significant new broadband for Internet access capability making the Internet available for increasingly productive, efficient use.
WinterGreen Research is an independent research organization funded by the sale of market research studies all over the world and by the implementation of ROI models that are used to calculate the total cost of ownership of equipment, services, and software. The company has 35 distributors worldwide, including Global Information Info Shop, Market Research.com, Research and Markets, Bloomberg, and Thompson Financial.
Table of ContentsDSL Chips Executive Summary
DSL Chip Market Driving ForcesData And Video Traffic Being Added To Voice Traffic In AbundanceDSL Chip Market SharesDSL Chip Market Forecasts
1. DSL Chip Market Dynamics and Market Description
1.1 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Chips1.1.1 Demand for Broadband Services and MarketOpportunities for Service Providers1.1.2 High-Performance Communications Processing1.1.3 Key Benefits of DSL Technology1.1.4 Improving Time-To-Market With ProgrammableSystems-Level Products1.1.5 DSL Provides Cost-Effective, High-PerformanceTransmission Over Existing Copper Lines1.1.6 End-to-End DSL Products1.2 Stability Of Global Credit And Financial Markets1.3 DSL Design Wins1.3.1 Semiconductor Components1.4 Communications Industry1.4.1 Carrier Networking1.4.2 Enterprise Networking1.4.3 Cloud Computing1.4.4 Increasing Demands for "Next-GenerationNetworking" Integrated Circuits1.5 Communications Strategy1.6 Internet And Wireless Dominate Communications Technology1.6.1 Optical Networks1.6.2 Data And Video Traffic Being Added InAbundance To Voice Traffic1.6.3 Semiconductor Companies Design DSL1.7 Storage Industry1.8 Mixed Signal Integrated Circuit Market1.8.1 Network Access Last Mile Of Telecommunications Network1.8.2 Metropolitan Area Networks1.8.3 Internet1.9 Signal Processing1.10 Product Positioning
2. DSL Chips Market Shares and Market Forecasts
2.1 DSL Chip Market Driving Forces2.1.1 Vendor DSL Positioning2.1.2 Data And Video Traffic Being Added To VoiceTraffic In Abundance2.2 DSL Chip Market Shares2.2.1 Broadcom2.2.2 Ikanos2.2.3 Ikanos Shipments2.2.4 Ikanos VDSL2.2.5 Lantiq Broadband Solutions2.2.6 MediaTek / Ralink / Trendchip2.3 DSL Chip Market Forecasts2.3.1 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Subscriber Markets2.4 Research and Development2.5 DSL Chip Applications2.6 DSL Chip Prices2.7 DSL Chip Regional Market
3. DSL Chips: Product Description
3.1 Broadcom3.1.1 Broadcom BCM6519 Multi-DSL Transceiver3.1.2 Broadcom BCM6529 Low Power Dual-Channel Analog Front End Device3.1.3 Broadcom BCM65300 VDSL2 G.Vector Central Office SoC3.1.4 Broadcom BCM65x00 Family Central OfficeHigh Density Multi-DSL Chipset3.1.5 Broadcom BCM6515 High-Performance VoIP DigitalSignal Processor3.1.6 Broadcom xDSL CPE Solutions3.1.7 BCM63168 xDSL Integrated Access Device SoC3.1.8 BCM6338 ADSL2+ Router Solution3.1.9 BCM6348 Single-Chip ADSL2+ CPE Chip3.1.10 BCM6358 Single-Chip ADSL2+ Integrated AccessDevice Solution3.1.11 BCM6362 Single-Chip IAD with Integrated ADSL2+,802.11n and DECT3.1.12 BCM6368 Residential VDSL2/ADSL2+ Gateway Solution3.2 Lantiq3.2.1 Lantiq XWAY VRX2003.2.2 Lantiq XWAY VRX2003.2.3 Lantiq XWAY VRX288 / VRX2083.2.4 Lantiq XWAY VRX268 / VRX2083.2.5 Lantiq XWAY VRX288 / VRX2083.2.6 Lantiq CONVERGATE3.2.7 Lantiq MELT3.2.8 Lantiq VINETIC-LTC3.2.9 Lantiq Smart SLIC-T3.2.10 Lantiq XWAY DANUBE3.3 Ikanos3.3.1 Ikanos Chipsets for Central Office Equipment3.3.2 Ikanos Chipsets for Customer Premises Equipment3.3.3 Ikanos Velocity A/VDSL CO Chipset3.3.4 Ikanos Accelity-2+ 8-Port VDSL2 Central Office Chipsets3.3.5 Ikanos' Accelity DA87781 VDSL2 CPE chipset3.3.6 Ikanos Fx-5 CO3.3.7 Ikanos FxS-5 CPE3.3.8 Ikanos Maxtane CX955xx3.3.9 Ikanos Orion Plus CX98124-11Z3.3.10 Ikanos Fusiv Vx185/1833.4 Analog Devices3.5 MediaTek xDSL(Ralink) / Trendchip
4. DSL Chip Technology
4.1 Delivering Video-Intensive Services4.2 Ikanos Technologies4.2.1 Advanced Bonding Capabilities4.2.2 Flexible Network Interfaces4.3 Ikanos NodeScale Vectoring4.3.1 Ikanos Quality Video (iQV) technology4.4 Telecommunications and DSL Standards Organizations4.4.1 ATIS4.4.2 Broadband Forum4.4.3 ETSI4.4.4 FSAN4.4.5 Home Gateway Initiative4.4.6 The International Telecommunications Union4.4.7 TTC4.4.8 UNH-IOL4.4.9 The FTTH Council Europe4.4.10 The FTTH Council Asia-Pacific4.4.11 The Broadband Forum4.4.12 Home Gateway Initiative4.4.13 Communications Standards Bodies:
5 DSL Chip Company Profiles
5.1 Analog Devices5.1.1 Analog Devices Focus On Key Strategic Markets5.1.2 Analog Devices Broad Line Of High-Performance ICs5.1.3 Analog Devices Digital Signal Processing Products5.1.4 Analog Devices Revenue5.1.5 Analog Devices Revenue Trends by End Market5.1.6 Analog Devices Industrial –5.1.7 Analog Devices Automotive –5.1.8 Analog Devices Consumer –5.1.9 Analog Devices Communications –5.1.10 Analog Devices Markets and Applications5.1.11 Analog Devices Industrial and Instrumentation Segments5.1.12 Analog Devices Defense/Aerospace Segment5.1.13 Analog Devices Energy Management Segment5.1.14 Analog Devices Healthcare Segment5.1.15 Analog Devices Automotive Segment5.1.16 Analog Devices Consumer Segment5.1.17 Analog Devices Communications Segment5.1.18 Analog Devices Segment Financial Information andGeographic Information5.1.19 Analog Devices Revenue Trends by Product Type5.1.20 Analog Devices Revenue Trends by Geographic Region5.2 Broadcom5.2.1 Broadcom Revenue5.2.2 Broadcom Broadband Communications Solutions5.2.3 Broadcom Mobile & Wireless (Solutions for the Hand)5.2.4 Broadcom Infrastructure & Networking(Solutions for Infrastructure)5.2.5 Broadcom Customers and Strategic Relationships5.3 BroadLight5.4 Cavium5.4.1 Cavium Customers and Target Markets5.5 Freescale Semiconductor5.5.1 Freescale Embedded Innovation5.6 Ikanos5.6.1 Ikanos Outsourcing and Value Chain5.6.2 Ikanos Net Loss5.6.3 Service Provider Platform Deployments5.6.4 Ikanos Revenue5.6.5 Ikanos Revenue5.6.6 Ikanos Revenue by Country as a Percentage of Total Revenue5.6.7 Ikanos Acquired from Conexant Systems, itsBroadband Access Product Line5.6.8 Ikanos Product Lines5.6.9 Ikanos Solution5.6.10 Key Features of Ikanos Technology5.6.11 Ikanos Major Service Provider Customers5.6.12 Ikanos Service and Support for Customers and Service Providers5.6.13 Sales, Business Development and Product Marketing5.6.14 Ikanos Go to Market Strategy5.6.15 Ikanos / Aricent5.6.16 Ikanos / ASSIA, Inc.5.6.17 Ikanos / Atheros5.6.18 Ikanos / DSP Group5.6.19 Ikanos / D2 Technologies5.6.20 Ikanos / Gatespace5.6.21 Ikanos / Jungo5.6.22 Ikanos / picoChip5.6.23 Ikanos / Ralink5.6.24 Ikanos / SoftAtHome5.6.25 Ikanos / Sunrise Telecom5.6.26 Ikanos / Wintegra5.7 Infineon Technologies5.7.1 Infineon Technologies Revenue5.8 IXYS Integrated Circuits Division5.8.1 IXYS Integrated Circuits Distribution Channels5.8.2 IXYS Integrated Circuits / Clare5.9 Lantiq5.10 Marvell5.11 MediaTek / Ralink Technology5.11.1 MediaTek / Ralink / Trendchip xDSL5.11.2 MediaTek xDSL(Ralink)5.12 PMC-Sierra5.13 Pulse5.14 Shantou New Tideshine Electron5.15 Shenzhen Chaoyue Electronics Co., Ltd.5.16 Shenzhen Sky Foundation5.17 Shenzhen Tianxiaowei Electronics Co., Ltd.5.18 Other xDSL Chip Based Products and Market Participants
List of Tables and FiguresDSL CHIP Executive Summary
DSL Chips Executive Summary
DSL Chip Market Driving Forces
Data And Video Traffic Being Added To Voice Traffic In Abundance
DSL Chip Market Shares
DSL Chip Market Forecasts
DSL CHIP Market Description and Market DynamicsTable 1-1
Highly-Integrated Chip Solutions
Digital DSL Product Positioning
Digital DSL Advantages
DSL CHIP Market Shares and Market ForecastsTable 2-1
DSL Chip Market Driving Forces
Vendor Competitive Positioning Factors
DSL Chip Market Shares, Dollars, 2012
DSL Component Shipments Dollars, Units Worldwide, 2012
DSL Chip Market Shipments Forecasts Dollars, Worldwide, 2013-2018
Broadband DSL Market Forecasts, Units and Dollars, Worldwide, 2013-2018
Broadband DSL Market Forecasts, Low End, Mid Range, and
High End Units and Dollars, Worldwide, 2012
DSL Subscriber Forecasts, Number, Worldwide, 2013-2018
Broadband DSL, Cable Modem, Wireless Device, and
Fiber to the Home Subscribers Worldwide, 2012
Broadband Services Typical Speed in Mbps
Broadband Fiber Cost Per Household to Build Out
DSL Chip Applications
DSL Regional Market Segments, Dollars, 2012
DSL Regional Market Segments, 2012
xDSL Component Regional Shipments by Company,
Dollars, Worldwide, 2012
DSL CHIP Product DescriptionTable 3-1
Broadcom BCM6519 Multi-DSL Transceiver Features
Broadcom BCM6529 Low Power Dual-Channel Analog
Front End Device Features
Broadcom BCM65300 VDSL2 G.vector Central Office SoC Features
Broadcom's new BCM65x00 Family Central Office SoC Features
Broadcom BCM6515 High-Performance VoIP Digital Signal
Ikanos Communications Processors
Ikanos DSL Chipsets
Ikanos Velocity Chip Architecture
Ikanos Velocity A/VDSL CO Chipset Key Features
Ikanos Accelity-2+ AD11008
Ikanos Accelity-2+ AD11008 Key Features
Ikanos Accelity-2+ AD11008 Applications
Ikanos Accelity DA87781 Applications
Accelity DA87781 Family product Key Features
Ikanos Fx100100-5/Fx10050-5 System Architecture
Ikanos Fx100100-5/Fx10050-5 System Key Features
Ikanos Fx100100S-5/Fx10050S-5 System Architecture
Ikanos FxS-5 CPE Key Features
Ikanos Maxtane CX95516/CX95524 System Architecture
Ikanos Maxtane CX955xx Key Features
Ikanos Orion Plus CX98124-11Z Block Diagram
Ikanos Orion Plus CX98124-11Z Key Features
Ikanos Fusiv Vx185/183 Key Features
MediaTek Product Advantages
MediaTek / Ralink Comprehensive Product Portfolio
DSL CHIP TechnologyFigure 4-1
Broadband Services Typical Speed in Mbps
Ikanos NodeScale Vectoring Product Key Features
Ikanos Quality Video (iQV) technology Key Features
DSL CHIP Company ProfilesTable 5-1
Analog Devices Embedded In Electronic Equipment
Analog Devices Industrial And Instrumentation Market Applications
Analog Devices Defense/Aerospace Products
Analog Devices Energy Management Segment Products
Analog Devices Healthcare Segment Innovative
Crosspoint Switch Technologies
Analog Devices Green Automotive Segment
Analog Devices Safety Automotive Segment
Analog Devices Comfort Automotive Segment
Analog Devices Consumer Segment Products
Analog Devices Communications Segment Systems
Analog Devices Crosspoint Switches
Broadcom Broadband Communications Solutions
Broadcom Customers and Strategic Relationships
Ikanos Product Lines
Ikanos Works Directly With Various Major Service Providers
MediaTek Industry Leadership
MediaTek Product Portfolio
MediaTek Product Advantages
MediaTek / Ralink Comprehensive Product Portfolio
Contact Clare: [email protected]
US:(339) 368 6001
Intl:+1 339 368 6001
Complete Internet of Things (IoT) embedded device security is not just about the device but involves the entire product’s identity, data and control integrity, and services traversing the cloud. A device can no longer be looked at as an island; it is a part of a system. In fact, given the cross-domain interactions enabled by IoT it could be a part of many systems. Also, depending on where the device is deployed, for example, in the office building versus a factory floor or oil field, security ha...
Oct. 1, 2016 11:15 AM EDT Reads: 865
24Notion is full-service global creative digital marketing, technology and lifestyle agency that combines strategic ideas with customized tactical execution. With a broad understand of the art of traditional marketing, new media, communications and social influence, 24Notion uniquely understands how to connect your brand strategy with the right consumer. 24Notion ranked #12 on Corporate Social Responsibility - Book of List.
Oct. 1, 2016 10:45 AM EDT Reads: 593
Fact is, enterprises have significant legacy voice infrastructure that’s costly to replace with pure IP solutions. How can we bring this analog infrastructure into our shiny new cloud applications? There are proven methods to bind both legacy voice applications and traditional PSTN audio into cloud-based applications and services at a carrier scale. Some of the most successful implementations leverage WebRTC, WebSockets, SIP and other open source technologies. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Da...
Oct. 1, 2016 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,723
Businesses are struggling to manage the information flow and interactions between all of these new devices and things jumping on their network, and the apps and IT systems they control. The data businesses gather is only helpful if they can do something with it. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Witeck, Principal Technology Strategist at Citrix, will discuss how different the impact of IoT will be for large businesses, expanding how IoT will allow large organizations to make their legacy ap...
Oct. 1, 2016 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 708
What happens when the different parts of a vehicle become smarter than the vehicle itself? As we move toward the era of smart everything, hundreds of entities in a vehicle that communicate with each other, the vehicle and external systems create a need for identity orchestration so that all entities work as a conglomerate. Much like an orchestra without a conductor, without the ability to secure, control, and connect the link between a vehicle’s head unit, devices, and systems and to manage the ...
Oct. 1, 2016 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 516
What does it look like when you have access to cloud infrastructure and platform under the same roof? Let’s talk about the different layers of Technology as a Service: who cares, what runs where, and how does it all fit together. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Phil Jackson, Lead Technology Evangelist at SoftLayer, an IBM company, spoke about the picture being painted by IBM Cloud and how the tools being crafted can help fill the gaps in your IT infrastructure.
Oct. 1, 2016 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 3,196
For basic one-to-one voice or video calling solutions, WebRTC has proven to be a very powerful technology. Although WebRTC’s core functionality is to provide secure, real-time p2p media streaming, leveraging native platform features and server-side components brings up new communication capabilities for web and native mobile applications, allowing for advanced multi-user use cases such as video broadcasting, conferencing, and media recording.
Oct. 1, 2016 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 3,319
In this strange new world where more and more power is drawn from business technology, companies are effectively straddling two paths on the road to innovation and transformation into digital enterprises. The first path is the heritage trail – with “legacy” technology forming the background. Here, extant technologies are transformed by core IT teams to provide more API-driven approaches. Legacy systems can restrict companies that are transitioning into digital enterprises. To truly become a lea...
Oct. 1, 2016 09:45 AM EDT Reads: 834
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Kausik Sridharabalan, founder and CTO of Pulzze Systems, Inc., will focus on key challenges in building an Internet of Things solution infrastructure. He will shed light on efficient ways of defining interactions within IoT solutions, leading to cost and time reduction. He will also introduce ways to handle data and how one can develop IoT solutions that are lean, flexible and configurable, thus making IoT infrastructure agile and scalable.
Oct. 1, 2016 09:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,676
SYS-CON Events announced today that Sheng Liang to Keynote at SYS-CON's 19th Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1-3, 2016 at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, California.
Oct. 1, 2016 09:15 AM EDT Reads: 197
Just over a week ago I received a long and loud sustained applause for a presentation I delivered at this year’s Cloud Expo in Santa Clara. I was extremely pleased with the turnout and had some very good conversations with many of the attendees. Over the next few days I had many more meaningful conversations and was not only happy with the results but also learned a few new things. Here is everything I learned in those three days distilled into three short points.
Oct. 1, 2016 08:45 AM EDT Reads: 5,510
Cognitive Computing is becoming the foundation for a new generation of solutions that have the potential to transform business. Unlike traditional approaches to building solutions, a cognitive computing approach allows the data to help determine the way applications are designed. This contrasts with conventional software development that begins with defining logic based on the current way a business operates. In her session at 18th Cloud Expo, Judith S. Hurwitz, President and CEO of Hurwitz & ...
Oct. 1, 2016 08:30 AM EDT Reads: 3,422
So, you bought into the current machine learning craze and went on to collect millions/billions of records from this promising new data source. Now, what do you do with them? Too often, the abundance of data quickly turns into an abundance of problems. How do you extract that "magic essence" from your data without falling into the common pitfalls? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Natalia Ponomareva, Software Engineer at Google, provided tips on how to be successful in large scale machine learning...
Oct. 1, 2016 08:30 AM EDT Reads: 2,510
An IoT product’s log files speak volumes about what’s happening with your products in the field, pinpointing current and potential issues, and enabling you to predict failures and save millions of dollars in inventory. But until recently, no one knew how to listen. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Dan Gettens, Chief Research Officer at OnProcess, will discuss recent research by Massachusetts Institute of Technology and OnProcess Technology, where MIT created a new, breakthrough analytics model f...
Oct. 1, 2016 08:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,287
The Transparent Cloud-computing Consortium (abbreviation: T-Cloud Consortium) will conduct research activities into changes in the computing model as a result of collaboration between "device" and "cloud" and the creation of new value and markets through organic data processing High speed and high quality networks, and dramatic improvements in computer processing capabilities, have greatly changed the nature of applications and made the storing and processing of data on the network commonplace.
Oct. 1, 2016 08:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,313
The Internet of Things can drive efficiency for airlines and airports. In their session at @ThingsExpo, Shyam Varan Nath, Principal Architect with GE, and Sudip Majumder, senior director of development at Oracle, will discuss the technical details of the connected airline baggage and related social media solutions. These IoT applications will enhance travelers' journey experience and drive efficiency for the airlines and the airports. The session will include a working demo and a technical d...
Oct. 1, 2016 07:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,867
Almost two-thirds of companies either have or soon will have IoT as the backbone of their business in 2016. However, IoT is far more complex than most firms expected. How can you not get trapped in the pitfalls? In his session at @ThingsExpo, Tony Shan, a renowned visionary and thought leader, will introduce a holistic method of IoTification, which is the process of IoTifying the existing technology and business models to adopt and leverage IoT. He will drill down to the components in this fra...
Oct. 1, 2016 06:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,955
Digital transformation is too big and important for our future success to not understand the rules that apply to it. The first three rules for winning in this age of hyper-digital transformation are: Advantages in speed, analytics and operational tempos must be captured by implementing an optimized information logistics system (OILS) Real-time operational tempos (IT, people and business processes) must be achieved Businesses that can "analyze data and act and with speed" will dominate those t...
Oct. 1, 2016 05:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,348
If you had a chance to enter on the ground level of the largest e-commerce market in the world – would you? China is the world’s most populated country with the second largest economy and the world’s fastest growing market. It is estimated that by 2018 the Chinese market will be reaching over $30 billion in gaming revenue alone. Admittedly for a foreign company, doing business in China can be challenging. Often changing laws, administrative regulations and the often inscrutable Chinese Interne...
Oct. 1, 2016 05:30 AM EDT Reads: 656
I'm a lonely sensor. I spend all day telling the world how I'm feeling, but none of the other sensors seem to care. I want to be connected. I want to build relationships with other sensors to be more useful for my human. I want my human to understand that when my friends next door are too hot for a while, I'll soon be flaming. And when all my friends go outside without me, I may be left behind. Don't just log my data; use the relationship graph. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Ryan Boyd, Engi...
Oct. 1, 2016 05:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,446