|By Steve Weisfeldt||
|December 7, 2012 09:45 AM EST||
Mobile applications and mobile websites have become a major channel for conducting business, improving employee efficiency, communicating, and reaching consumers. In the past, mobile played a smaller role in business applications, so performance issues and outages were less of a concern. This is no longer the case. Today, performance problems with mobile applications lead directly to revenue loss, brand damage, and diminished employee productivity. Part I of this article discusses the differences between testing traditional web and mobile applications, specific challenges associated with mobile load testing, mobile testing basics and best practices for recording mobile load test scenarios. In Part II, we will look at how to conduct realistic tests and how to best analyze the results.
Application developers have long understood the need for load testing conventional desktop web applications to ensure that they will behave properly under load with the expected number of users. With the advent of mobile apps and mobile websites the principles of load testing have not changed. There are, however, challenges specific to mobile load testing that must be addressed by your load testing solution.
Since mobile apps and applications for desktop web browsers use the same underlying technologies, the good news is that most load testing tasks and challenges are the same. This means that you don't necessarily need a brand new, mobile-specific load testing tool, but you do need a quality web load testing tool capable of handling the nuances of load testing mobile apps. Using a tool that enables testing of traditional and mobile web applications enables you to leverage existing in-house skills for designing and parameterizing your scripts, running your tests, and analyzing the results.
Aside from the similarities between traditional and mobile load testing, there are three key differences:
- Simulating network and bandwidth for wireless protocols: With 3G wireless protocols, mobile devices typically connect to the Internet using a slower, lower quality connection than desktops and laptops. This has an effect on response times on the client side and on the server, which you'll need to account for as you define your tests and analyze your results. Additionally, latency and packet loss becomes more of a factor with mobile applications and needs to be considered.
- Recording on mobile devices: Obviously, mobile apps run on mobile devices, and this can make it difficult to record test scenarios, particularly for secured applications that use HTTPS.
- Supporting a wide range of devices: The many different kinds of mobile devices on the market have led web application designers to tailor content based on the capabilities of the client's platform. This presents challenges for recording and playing back test scenarios.
Mobile Load Testing Basics
As you may know, a typical automated functional test for a mobile application emulates user actions (including tap, swipe, zoom, and entering text) on a real device or an emulator. The objective of load testing, however, is not to test the functionality of the application for just a single user. Rather, the goal is to see how the server infrastructure performs when handling requests from a large number of users, and to understand how response times are affected by other users interacting with the application.
An effective load test simulates a high volume of simultaneous users accessing your server via your application. Using real devices or emulators for this task is impractical because it demands acquiring, configuring, and synchronizing hundreds or thousands of real devices or machines running emulators.
The solution, of course, is to use a load testing approach that is designed to scale as needed. With a client-based approach, user actions in the browser or the native application are recorded and played back. In contrast, a protocol-based approach involves recording and reproducing the network traffic between the device and the server. To verify performance under large loads, tools that enable protocol-based testing are superior to those that support only client-based testing because they can scale up to millions of users while checking errors and response times for each user.
The basic process for protocol-based mobile load testing is:
- Record the network traffic between the device and the server
- Replay the network requests for a large number of virtual users
- Analyze the results
It appears straightforward, but there are challenges at every step. The good news is that these challenges can be addressed with an effective load testing approach.
Recording Mobile Load Testing Scenarios
To generate a mobile test scenario, you first need to identify the type of mobile application under test. Challenges associated with capturing the data exchanges between a mobile application and the server depend on the design of the application:
- Native apps - These apps are coded using a programming language (Objective-C for iOS, Java for Android) and API that is specific to the device. As such, they are tied to a mobile platform and are installed from an online store or market.
- Hybrid Apps - A web app embedded in a native app is known as a hybrid app. The native part of the application is limited to a few user interface elements like the menu or navigation buttons, and functions such as automatic login. The main content is displayed in an embedded web browser component. The Facebook application, installed from an online store or a market is a typical sample.
Recording Tests for Native Apps
Because native apps run on your device or within an emulator, to record a test you need to intercept the network traffic coming from the real device or the emulator.
To intercept this traffic, the equipment that records the traffic must be connected to the same network as the device. When the recording computer is on the intranet behind a firewall, it is not possible to record a mobile device connected via a 3G or 4G wireless network. The device and the computer running the recorder must be connected to the same Wi-Fi network.
Most load testing tools provide a proxy based recorder, which is the easiest way to record an application's network traffic. To use this approach, you need to configure the mobile device's Wi-Fi settings so that the traffic goes through the recording proxy. Some mobile operating systems, such as iOS and Android 4, support making this change, but older versions of Android may not. Moreover, some applications connect directly to the server regardless of the proxy settings of the operating system. In either of these cases, you need a tool that provides an alternative to proxy-based recording methods based on network capture or tunneling.
Note: You can use the following simple test to check if the application can be recorded using a proxy. First, configure the proxy settings on the device and record your interactions with any website in a mobile browser. Then, try to record interactions in the native application. If your testing tool successfully records the browser generated traffic, but does not record traffic generated by the native application then you can conclude that the native application is bypassing the proxy settings and that an alternative recording method is required.
Recording Tests for Web Apps and Mobile Version of Websites
Web apps use the same web technologies as modern desktop browsers. As a result, you can record the application or the mobile version of a website from a modern browser on your regular desktop computer, which is an easier and faster alternative to recording from the device.
Many web applications check the browser and platform used to access them. This enables the application, when accessed from a mobile device, to redirect to a mobile version of the content that may contain less text or fewer images. To test such an app from the desktop, you need to modify the requests to make them appear to the server to be coming from a mobile device. Otherwise, you will not be testing the mobile version of the application as the server may redirect to a desktop version. Some browser plugins provide the ability to alter the identity of the browser (by modifying the User-Agent header of requests). Support for this feature is also directly integrated in the recorder of advanced load testing tools.
Modifying the browser's identity is not always enough. You obviously cannot use this approach to transform Internet Explorer 6 into an HTML5 compatible browser. The browser you use on the desktop must be able to parse and render content created for mobile browsers, so it's best to record with a modern browser like Internet Explorer 9, Firefox 5, Chrome 15, or Safari 5 (or a more recent version of any of these if available). If the application includes WebKit specific features, you should use a WebKit based desktop browser, preferably either Chrome or Safari.
Recording Tests for Hybrid Apps
Obviously, tests for native apps cannot be recorded using a desktop browser. However, tests for many hybrid apps can. You may be able to directly access the URL used for the application, for example http://m.facebook.com for the Facebook application, and record your tests as you would for a classic web app.
Recording Tests for Secured Native Applications
There are additional challenges to consider when recording tests for a secured native application, that is, an application that uses HTTPS for the login procedure or any other processing.
By default, all HTTPS recording methods, whether proxy or tunnel based, are seen as man-in-the-middle attacks by the device. This raises a non-blocking alert in a desktop or mobile browser but it leads to an outright connection refusal in native applications, making it impossible to record the secured traffic.
The only way to record tests for secured native applications is to provide a root certificate that authorizes the connection with the proxy or tunnel. While this feature is currently supported by relatively few load testing solutions, it is essential for load testing any native application that relies on HTTPS.
Note: The root certificate must be installed on the device. This operation is simple for iOS devices; you can simply send the certificate via email and open the attachment on the device. For other platforms, including Android, the procedure is not as straightforward and may depend on the version of the operating system and the manufacturer of the device.
Running Realistic Tests
Once you've recorded a test scenario, you need to be parameterize it so that it can emulate users with different identities and behaviors as it is played back to produce a realistic load on the server. This step is required for traditional and mobile web applications, and the tools used to complete it are the same. When playing back the test scenarios, however, there are several challenges specific to mobile load testing and we will discuss this more in Part II of this article on "Best Practices for Load Testing Mobile Applications."
SYS-CON Events announced today that 910Telecom will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Housed in the classic Denver Gas & Electric Building, 910 15th St., 910Telecom is a carrier-neutral telecom hotel located in the heart of Denver. Adjacent to CenturyLink, AT&T, and Denver Main, 910Telecom offers connectivity to all major carriers, Internet service providers, Internet backbones and ...
Jul. 27, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 666
SYS-CON Events announced today that LeaseWeb USA, a cloud Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) provider, will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. LeaseWeb is one of the world's largest hosting brands. The company helps customers define, develop and deploy IT infrastructure tailored to their exact business needs, by combining various kinds cloud solutions.
Jul. 27, 2016 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,208
Manufacturers are embracing the Industrial Internet the same way consumers are leveraging Fitbits – to improve overall health and wellness. Both can provide consistent measurement, visibility, and suggest performance improvements customized to help reach goals. Fitbit users can view real-time data and make adjustments to increase their activity. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mark Bernardo Professional Services Leader, Americas, at GE Digital, discussed how leveraging the Industrial Internet a...
Jul. 27, 2016 09:45 AM EDT Reads: 433
The cloud market growth today is largely in public clouds. While there is a lot of spend in IT departments in virtualization, these aren’t yet translating into a true “cloud” experience within the enterprise. What is stopping the growth of the “private cloud” market? In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Nara Rajagopalan, CEO of Accelerite, explored the challenges in deploying, managing, and getting adoption for a private cloud within an enterprise. What are the key differences between wh...
Jul. 27, 2016 09:30 AM EDT Reads: 2,057
SYS-CON Events announced today that Venafi, the Immune System for the Internet™ and the leading provider of Next Generation Trust Protection, will exhibit at @DevOpsSummit at 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Venafi is the Immune System for the Internet™ that protects the foundation of all cybersecurity – cryptographic keys and digital certificates – so they can’t be misused by bad guys in attacks...
Jul. 27, 2016 09:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,352
The best-practices for building IoT applications with Go Code that attendees can use to build their own IoT applications. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Indraneel Mitra, Senior Solutions Architect & Technology Evangelist at Cognizant, provided valuable information and resources for both novice and experienced developers on how to get started with IoT and Golang in a day. He also provided information on how to use Intel Arduino Kit, Go Robotics API and AWS IoT stack to build an application tha...
Jul. 27, 2016 09:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,129
Amazon has gradually rolled out parts of its IoT offerings in the last year, but these are just the tip of the iceberg. In addition to optimizing their back-end AWS offerings, Amazon is laying the ground work to be a major force in IoT – especially in the connected home and office. Amazon is extending its reach by building on its dominant Cloud IoT platform, its Dash Button strategy, recently announced Replenishment Services, the Echo/Alexa voice recognition control platform, the 6-7 strategic...
Jul. 27, 2016 09:00 AM EDT Reads: 443
For basic one-to-one voice or video calling solutions, WebRTC has proven to be a very powerful technology. Although WebRTC’s core functionality is to provide secure, real-time p2p media streaming, leveraging native platform features and server-side components brings up new communication capabilities for web and native mobile applications, allowing for advanced multi-user use cases such as video broadcasting, conferencing, and media recording.
Jul. 27, 2016 08:45 AM EDT Reads: 919
IoT generates lots of temporal data. But how do you unlock its value? You need to discover patterns that are repeatable in vast quantities of data, understand their meaning, and implement scalable monitoring across multiple data streams in order to monetize the discoveries and insights. Motif discovery and deep learning platforms are emerging to visualize sensor data, to search for patterns and to build application that can monitor real time streams efficiently. In his session at @ThingsExpo, ...
Jul. 27, 2016 08:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,058
Verizon Communications Inc. (NYSE, Nasdaq: VZ) and Yahoo! Inc. (Nasdaq: YHOO) have entered into a definitive agreement under which Verizon will acquire Yahoo's operating business for approximately $4.83 billion in cash, subject to customary closing adjustments. Yahoo informs, connects and entertains a global audience of more than 1 billion monthly active users** -- including 600 million monthly active mobile users*** through its search, communications and digital content products. Yahoo also co...
Jul. 27, 2016 08:00 AM EDT Reads: 591
There will be new vendors providing applications, middleware, and connected devices to support the thriving IoT ecosystem. This essentially means that electronic device manufacturers will also be in the software business. Many will be new to building embedded software or robust software. This creates an increased importance on software quality, particularly within the Industrial Internet of Things where business-critical applications are becoming dependent on products controlled by software. Qua...
Jul. 27, 2016 06:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,472
In addition to all the benefits, IoT is also bringing new kind of customer experience challenges - cars that unlock themselves, thermostats turning houses into saunas and baby video monitors broadcasting over the internet. This list can only increase because while IoT services should be intuitive and simple to use, the delivery ecosystem is a myriad of potential problems as IoT explodes complexity. So finding a performance issue is like finding the proverbial needle in the haystack.
Jul. 27, 2016 04:45 AM EDT Reads: 2,275
Machine Learning helps make complex systems more efficient. By applying advanced Machine Learning techniques such as Cognitive Fingerprinting, wind project operators can utilize these tools to learn from collected data, detect regular patterns, and optimize their own operations. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Stuart Gillen, Director of Business Development at SparkCognition, discussed how research has demonstrated the value of Machine Learning in delivering next generation analytics to imp...
Jul. 27, 2016 04:30 AM EDT Reads: 2,503
Large scale deployments present unique planning challenges, system commissioning hurdles between IT and OT and demand careful system hand-off orchestration. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jeff Smith, Senior Director and a founding member of Incenergy, will discuss some of the key tactics to ensure delivery success based on his experience of the last two years deploying Industrial IoT systems across four continents.
Jul. 27, 2016 04:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,567
The 19th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. Cloud Expo, to be held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, brings together Cloud Computing, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, Digital Transformation, Microservices and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportuni...
Jul. 27, 2016 02:15 AM EDT Reads: 2,608
The Internet of Things will challenge the status quo of how IT and development organizations operate. Or will it? Certainly the fog layer of IoT requires special insights about data ontology, security and transactional integrity. But the developmental challenges are the same: People, Process and Platform. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Craig Sproule, CEO of Metavine, demonstrated how to move beyond today's coding paradigm and shared the must-have mindsets for removing complexity from the develo...
Jul. 27, 2016 02:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,471
Basho Technologies has announced the latest release of Basho Riak TS, version 1.3. Riak TS is an enterprise-grade NoSQL database optimized for Internet of Things (IoT). The open source version enables developers to download the software for free and use it in production as well as make contributions to the code and develop applications around Riak TS. Enhancements to Riak TS make it quick, easy and cost-effective to spin up an instance to test new ideas and build IoT applications. In addition to...
Jul. 27, 2016 12:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,948
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with the 19th International Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world and ThingsExpo Silicon Valley Call for Papers is now open.
Jul. 26, 2016 11:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,623
IoT is rapidly changing the way enterprises are using data to improve business decision-making. In order to derive business value, organizations must unlock insights from the data gathered and then act on these. In their session at @ThingsExpo, Eric Hoffman, Vice President at EastBanc Technologies, and Peter Shashkin, Head of Development Department at EastBanc Technologies, discussed how one organization leveraged IoT, cloud technology and data analysis to improve customer experiences and effi...
Jul. 26, 2016 11:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,019
"We've discovered that after shows 80% if leads that people get, 80% of the conversations end up on the show floor, meaning people forget about it, people forget who they talk to, people forget that there are actual business opportunities to be had here so we try to help out and keep the conversations going," explained Jeff Mesnik, Founder and President of ContentMX, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
Jul. 26, 2016 10:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,381