|By Jim Machi||
|July 19, 2011 12:00 PM EDT||
The rapid growth of smartphones, tablets and netbooks are forcing mobile service providers to consider how best to meet the growing demands for rich data services that are straining mobile network capacity and eroding proﬁts. Because their networks were originally designed for the low bandwidth requirements of voice trafﬁc, mobile service providers today have only a limited set of options for increasing capacity to accommodate data services. However, most of these options are expensive and often time-consuming to deploy, and include adding more leased lines, moving to ﬁber, increasing the microwave spectrum, and using Ethernet ring.
How can mobile service providers better design mobile backhaul networks to solve these issues? To answer this question, let's first dive into the many factors that shaped today's capacity requirements.
The Heart of the Issue
Service providers originally designed and built mobile backhaul networks for voice traffic. At the time, voice was the predominant service flowing through those networks and could be accommodated without too much difficulty and expense. But between 2005 and 2010, the situation changed. Voice average revenue per user (ARPU) began to decline, competition became intense among providers and bandwidth-hungry data services were introduced. Shortly thereafter, Apple's iPhone led the avalanche of smartphones that were designed to be the "gateway" to the Internet, and to the various streaming services that the Internet offered. This accelerated the development of 3G networks, and network designers had to scramble to keep up. The ever-increasing proliferation of these devices, and the data-hungry applications they use, placed heavy demands on these networks, creating the need for even more advanced networks to handle high-end services like video calling and mobile TV. Now, network designers are scrambling once again to build network solutions that alleviate these heavy demands on the network while providing an enhanced user experience.
How to Increase Backhaul Capacity
Increasing backhaul capacity is critical to alleviating demands on today's networks. Service providers and network designers have five options for increasing their backhaul capacity:
- Add more leased capacity to existing copper or fiber lines
Service providers can always lease more lines to help handle higher traffic, but leased-line charges can be extremely expensive - often the largest operational expense for service providers - eliminating this as a viable option for the long term.
- Roll out fiber
We're all dreaming of the day when we can lay down fiber everywhere without worrying about limits on bandwidth anymore. Again, the capital expenditure for this is monumental, and deployment takes a long time. In addition, laying fiber can be impractical and costly in both densely populated urban areas and sparse rural areas.
- Increase microwave spectrum
Upping microwave spectrum can increase bandwidth by about one-third, but creates two additional problems: (1) high cost from mandatory license fees and (2) occasionally scarce amounts of spectrum in certain parts of the world.
- Upgrade the SDH microwave to Ethernet ring
Upgrading the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) microwave to Ethernet ring can double capacity, but its 256 QAM modulation scheme works only in clear weather and over short distances. However, both capital and operational expenses are very high, and upgrades can take several months in urban areas.
- Optimize streams in the backhaul segment
Optimizing bandwidth for streams in the backhaul segment of existing mobile networks, such as Abis (2G) and Iub (3G) streams, can be an attractive option for scaling mobile backhaul capacity from both a cost and network bandwidth perspective. Optimizing the mobile backhaul segment can typically double the bandwidth capacity at a significantly lower capital and operational cost than the above options. Best of all, deployment typically takes only a few days.
Figure 1: Backhaul in the Mobile Network
Backhaul Optimization: Meeting Demand Without Breaking the Bank
The most direct and cost-effective way to meet network demands is through backhaul optimization. Network designers have built today's networks by adding to existing infrastructure in a piecemeal fashion. True 4G networks, with all-IP structure, will require massive capital investments to become a reality.
However in today's environment, service providers and network designers must do the best they can with available resources to meet increasing demand - without breaking the bank. Mobile backhaul bandwidth optimization helps relieve these two issues:
- Timing: New features and services for mobile customers are being rolled out at an alarmingly high rate for designers. In just a few short years, consumers migrated from voice services to full-scale mobile broadband Internet. Now, technologies, like HD video calling, and various other forms of streaming high-resolution video are in high demand - with the next wave of new services just on the horizon.
The bottom line is that customers are adopting these new expanded services quickly and demand is increasing much more rapidly than many service providers can deliver them. Designers are left scrambling to upgrade networks as quickly as possible to handle these bandwidth-hungry services. Bandwidth optimization's rapid deployment addresses this time crunch directly.
- Expenses: True 4G technology, with its all-IP packet switches and 1 Gb/s data rates, requires a massive additional capital expenditure. Very few service providers can afford to uproot their entire existing networks. Instead, the mobile backhaul segment provides the perfect opportunity to meet increased demand, improve network performance and reduce expenditures for upgrade - helping to keep profits on the rise.
How to Optimize Mobile Backhaul Networks
Session bandwidth optimizers (SBO-MBs) for mobile backhaul are an effective means to optimize the backhaul segment of a mobile network. In fact, in field trials, SBO-MBs actually doubled a mobile service provider's backhaul capacity.
Figure 2: Session Bandwidth Optimizer Optimizing Various Streams in the Backhaul Segment of a Mobile Network
An SBO-MB is a standalone system that optimizes bandwidth in the backhaul segments of both asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) and IP-based streams. Because SBO-MBs are based on units placed within the current physical backhaul segment, it is not as disruptive or costly as other alternatives for increasing bandwidth capacity.
SBO-MBs monitor and maintain the key performance indicators (KPI) by which mobile backhaul infrastructure performance are measured. These include delay, jitter, bit error rate, and availability. Following the suggested KPIs is critical to maintaining high subscriber quality of experience (QoE) and to meeting Service Level Agreements (SLAs) for voice and data services.
In addition, SBO-MBs leverage advanced bandwidth optimization, statistical multiplexing and grooming techniques that typically double the capacity on backhaul links - significantly increasing speed for the end user. Moreover, this method preserves the quality and integrity of the original data traffic. By combining sophisticated optimization with Quality of Service (QoS) protection techniques, these devices can provide CAPEX and OPEX savings for a mobile operator's backhaul segment while increasing backhaul capacity.
On the input end, an SBO-MB optimizes 2G, 3G, native IP, or pulse-code modulation (PCM) streams and transmits a combined optimized stream over time-division multiplexing (TDM) and/or Ethernet. On the other end of the backhaul segment at the radio network controller (RNC)/binary synchronous communications (BSC) site, a second SBO-MB receives the optimized stream, restores the original streams (2G, 3G, IP, or PCM), and provides them to the RNC, BSC, or other networks as appropriate.
Some of the additional functionality SBO-MBs provide includes:
- Abis optimization for 2G networks
- ATM and IP-based optimization for 3G networks
- Auto detection of Abis and ATM-based streams
- Pseudo-wire capability (TDM services over IP, SAToP, CESoPSN)
- Timing over packets (TOPSync, IEEE1588v2, SyncE)
TOPSync is extremely important for timing synchronization between the base transceiver station (BTS)/Node B and the BTS/RNC when they are connected over a packet segment because the cell tower and the BSC/RNC need to be in close synchronization for correct intercell handoffs that eliminate dropped calls.
Along with optimizing mobile streams, an SBO-MB can optimize PCM streams from TDM networks and native IP streams (from an IP-PBX, for example).
SBO-MBs also have several additional benefits:
- Wide range of deployment architectures: SBO-MBs support numerous network topologies, including Point-to-Point (PTP), Point-to-Multi-Point (PTMP), ring, drop-and-continue, and many others.
- Data-offload configuration: SBO-MBs can use overlay to separate the 2G voice/data and 3G voice/signaling from the high-speed packet access (HSPA) data offload path.
- Carrier-grade reliability in a small footprint: SBO-MBs provide carrier-grade reliability in a 1 RU chassis, unparalleled in the industry, for significant CAPEX savings.
- Leading transmission standards: SBO-MBs support a variety of transmission technologies, including TDM, IP, and Ethernet. Support for multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) is planned.
A Glance into the Future
While we don't know specifically what the future holds, one thing that's clear is that consumers will continue to demand innovative and quality services. In order to keep up with this demand, service providers and network designers must cost-effectively increase network capacity while providing users with the high quality that is expected of today's applications and services.
Although there are several options for augmenting network capacity, session bandwidth optimizers provide the most cost-effective option for doing so on a mobile network by simply optimizing the backhaul segment. Session bandwidth optimizers deliver services that encourage customer retention as well as attract new customers but, more important, they provide the additional bandwidth to service this growing number of subscribers - now and in the future.
@ThingsExpo has been named the Top 5 Most Influential M2M Brand by Onalytica in the ‘Machine to Machine: Top 100 Influencers and Brands.' Onalytica analyzed the online debate on M2M by looking at over 85,000 tweets to provide the most influential individuals and brands that drive the discussion. According to Onalytica the "analysis showed a very engaged community with a lot of interactive tweets. The M2M discussion seems to be more fragmented and driven by some of the major brands present in the...
Oct. 22, 2016 01:45 PM EDT Reads: 11,232
The Internet of Things (IoT), in all its myriad manifestations, has great potential. Much of that potential comes from the evolving data management and analytic (DMA) technologies and processes that allow us to gain insight from all of the IoT data that can be generated and gathered. This potential may never be met as those data sets are tied to specific industry verticals and single markets, with no clear way to use IoT data and sensor analytics to fulfill the hype being given the IoT today.
Oct. 22, 2016 12:45 PM EDT Reads: 2,299
SYS-CON Events announced today that Transparent Cloud Computing (T-Cloud) Consortium will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. The Transparent Cloud Computing Consortium (T-Cloud Consortium) will conduct research activities into changes in the computing model as a result of collaboration between "device" and "cloud" and the creation of new value and markets through organic data proces...
Oct. 22, 2016 12:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,264
SYS-CON Events announced today that MathFreeOn will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MathFreeOn is Software as a Service (SaaS) used in Engineering and Math education. Write scripts and solve math problems online. MathFreeOn provides online courses for beginners or amateurs who have difficulties in writing scripts. In accordance with various mathematical topics, there are more tha...
Oct. 22, 2016 12:30 PM EDT Reads: 911
More and more brands have jumped on the IoT bandwagon. We have an excess of wearables – activity trackers, smartwatches, smart glasses and sneakers, and more that track seemingly endless datapoints. However, most consumers have no idea what “IoT” means. Creating more wearables that track data shouldn't be the aim of brands; delivering meaningful, tangible relevance to their users should be. We're in a period in which the IoT pendulum is still swinging. Initially, it swung toward "smart for smar...
Oct. 22, 2016 11:30 AM EDT Reads: 520
@ThingsExpo has been named the Top 5 Most Influential Internet of Things Brand by Onalytica in the ‘The Internet of Things Landscape 2015: Top 100 Individuals and Brands.' Onalytica analyzed Twitter conversations around the #IoT debate to uncover the most influential brands and individuals driving the conversation. Onalytica captured data from 56,224 users. The PageRank based methodology they use to extract influencers on a particular topic (tweets mentioning #InternetofThings or #IoT in this ...
Oct. 22, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 8,239
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftNet Solutions will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. SoftNet Solutions specializes in Enterprise Solutions for Hadoop and Big Data. It offers customers the most open, robust, and value-conscious portfolio of solutions, services, and tools for the shortest route to success with Big Data. The unique differentiator is the ability to architect and ...
Oct. 22, 2016 10:15 AM EDT Reads: 557
SYS-CON Events announced today that Niagara Networks will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Niagara Networks offers the highest port-density systems, and the most complete Next-Generation Network Visibility systems including Network Packet Brokers, Bypass Switches, and Network TAPs.
Oct. 22, 2016 09:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,267
SYS-CON Events announced today that Embotics, the cloud automation company, will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Embotics is the cloud automation company for IT organizations and service providers that need to improve provisioning or enable self-service capabilities. With a relentless focus on delivering a premier user experience and unmatched customer support, Embotics is the fas...
Oct. 22, 2016 09:15 AM EDT Reads: 731
In an era of historic innovation fueled by unprecedented access to data and technology, the low cost and risk of entering new markets has leveled the playing field for business. Today, any ambitious innovator can easily introduce a new application or product that can reinvent business models and transform the client experience. In their Day 2 Keynote at 19th Cloud Expo, Mercer Rowe, IBM Vice President of Strategic Alliances, and Raejeanne Skillern, Intel Vice President of Data Center Group and ...
Oct. 22, 2016 09:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,418
Virgil consists of an open-source encryption library, which implements Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) and Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES) (including RSA schema), a Key Management API, and a cloud-based Key Management Service (Virgil Keys). The Virgil Keys Service consists of a public key service and a private key escrow service.
Oct. 22, 2016 08:30 AM EDT Reads: 941
Data is the fuel that drives the machine learning algorithmic engines and ultimately provides the business value. In his session at Cloud Expo, Ed Featherston, a director and senior enterprise architect at Collaborative Consulting, will discuss the key considerations around quality, volume, timeliness, and pedigree that must be dealt with in order to properly fuel that engine.
Oct. 22, 2016 08:15 AM EDT Reads: 3,765
Fifty billion connected devices and still no winning protocols standards. HTTP, WebSockets, MQTT, and CoAP seem to be leading in the IoT protocol race at the moment but many more protocols are getting introduced on a regular basis. Each protocol has its pros and cons depending on the nature of the communications. Does there really need to be only one protocol to rule them all? Of course not. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Matthieu, co-founder and CTO of Octoblu, walk you through how Oct...
Oct. 22, 2016 07:45 AM EDT Reads: 3,102
Fact is, enterprises have significant legacy voice infrastructure that’s costly to replace with pure IP solutions. How can we bring this analog infrastructure into our shiny new cloud applications? There are proven methods to bind both legacy voice applications and traditional PSTN audio into cloud-based applications and services at a carrier scale. Some of the most successful implementations leverage WebRTC, WebSockets, SIP and other open source technologies. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Da...
Oct. 22, 2016 07:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,263
In past @ThingsExpo presentations, Joseph di Paolantonio has explored how various Internet of Things (IoT) and data management and analytics (DMA) solution spaces will come together as sensor analytics ecosystems. This year, in his session at @ThingsExpo, Joseph di Paolantonio from DataArchon, will be adding the numerous Transportation areas, from autonomous vehicles to “Uber for containers.” While IoT data in any one area of Transportation will have a huge impact in that area, combining sensor...
Oct. 22, 2016 06:45 AM EDT Reads: 416
If you had a chance to enter on the ground level of the largest e-commerce market in the world – would you? China is the world’s most populated country with the second largest economy and the world’s fastest growing market. It is estimated that by 2018 the Chinese market will be reaching over $30 billion in gaming revenue alone. Admittedly for a foreign company, doing business in China can be challenging. Often changing laws, administrative regulations and the often inscrutable Chinese Interne...
Oct. 22, 2016 06:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,351
SYS-CON Events announced today that Pulzze Systems will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Pulzze Systems, Inc. provides infrastructure products for the Internet of Things to enable any connected device and system to carry out matched operations without programming. For more information, visit http://www.pulzzesystems.com.
Oct. 22, 2016 05:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,478
In the next forty months – just over three years – businesses will undergo extraordinary changes. The exponential growth of digitization and machine learning will see a step function change in how businesses create value, satisfy customers, and outperform their competition. In the next forty months companies will take the actions that will see them get to the next level of the game called Capitalism. Or they won’t – game over. The winners of today and tomorrow think differently, follow different...
Oct. 22, 2016 04:30 AM EDT Reads: 823
One of biggest questions about Big Data is “How do we harness all that information for business use quickly and effectively?” Geographic Information Systems (GIS) or spatial technology is about more than making maps, but adding critical context and meaning to data of all types, coming from all different channels – even sensors. In his session at @ThingsExpo, William (Bill) Meehan, director of utility solutions for Esri, will take a closer look at the current state of spatial technology and ar...
Oct. 22, 2016 03:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,674
The Open Connectivity Foundation (OCF), sponsor of the IoTivity open source project, and AllSeen Alliance, which provides the AllJoyn® open source IoT framework, today announced that the two organizations’ boards have approved a merger under the OCF name and bylaws. This merger will advance interoperability between connected devices from both groups, enabling the full operating potential of IoT and representing a significant step towards a connected ecosystem.
Oct. 22, 2016 02:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,162